THE JEWISH CEMETERY, SALONIKA THE KIPPAW
TWO JEWISH VISITORS.
In native costume worn by the Salonika
One has put on the CAPITANA - a headdress
edged with fur.
of the Jewesses of Salonika was quite striking to visiting foreigners,
as it was both exotic and readily visible.
Muslim women went about enveloped in either ferace and yasmak, consisting
of a dust coat that reached to the ground and white linen head and face
veil, or the more chic and newly introduced çarsaf. This was an
adaptation of a quite simple outer garment that accommodated itself quite
stylishly to newly introduced European fashions, through hair and dress
were completely concealed. Jewesses, on the other hand, having discarded
the ferace which had been used until the end of the 19th century, openly
circulated in a costume that was quite striking, if not bizarre.
The two women in the photograph are correctly described as wearing traditional
costumes. The basic component of this costume was the sayo, a wrap-around,
sleeveless garment that left the bosom quite prominently exposed. Over
this was worn a striped and long sleeved kaftan called an antari. This
was cut quite narrowly and was sufficiently long to allow it to be drawn
together at the back left of the wearer. A portion was then gathered together
and tucked into a pocket in the sayo on the right side in the manner of
the woman on the right. As the front panels of the antari did not reach
further forward than the sides it was customary to wear a long apron known
as a devantal. The purpose of this seems to have been originally to protect
the rich fabric of the sayo.
The most distinctive part of the costume was the headpiece or kofya, worn
only by married women. This was an assemblage of various, (but traditionally
dictated) elements. The most dominant of these being a long green brocade
snood into which the hair was at times inserted. At its terminus was set
a large square of velvet heavily encrusted with seed pearls and designs
outlined in gold wire. This was known as a pudya. On the head were assembled
several differently cut the colored sections of cloth and the entire confection
was held in place by the tokado, a band of brightly colored chintz that
encircled the head and was in turn held in place by a band of velvet that
crossed under the chin and was bound on top of the head.
It was customary when going out to wear as well a short sleeved jacket
of satin lined with fur, usually rabbit but occasionally among the poor,
of cat. This was the kapitana, and can be seen being worn, along with
a kofya and other garments, by the woman on the left. The woman on the
right has folded her kapitana in a quite idiosyncratic manner and is wearing
it as a sunshade. The caption, undoubtedly added after the elapse of a
good period of time, has incorrectly identified the kapitana as a headpiece.