Photograph 1


In native costume worn by the Salonika Jewesses.
One has put on the CAPITANA - a headdress edged with fur.

The costume of the Jewesses of Salonika was quite striking to visiting foreigners, as it was both exotic and readily visible.
Muslim women went about enveloped in either ferace and yasmak, consisting of a dust coat that reached to the ground and white linen head and face veil, or the more chic and newly introduced çarsaf. This was an adaptation of a quite simple outer garment that accommodated itself quite stylishly to newly introduced European fashions, through hair and dress were completely concealed. Jewesses, on the other hand, having discarded the ferace which had been used until the end of the 19th century, openly circulated in a costume that was quite striking, if not bizarre.
The two women in the photograph are correctly described as wearing traditional costumes. The basic component of this costume was the sayo, a wrap-around, sleeveless garment that left the bosom quite prominently exposed. Over this was worn a striped and long sleeved kaftan called an antari. This was cut quite narrowly and was sufficiently long to allow it to be drawn together at the back left of the wearer. A portion was then gathered together and tucked into a pocket in the sayo on the right side in the manner of the woman on the right. As the front panels of the antari did not reach further forward than the sides it was customary to wear a long apron known as a devantal. The purpose of this seems to have been originally to protect the rich fabric of the sayo.
The most distinctive part of the costume was the headpiece or kofya, worn only by married women. This was an assemblage of various, (but traditionally dictated) elements. The most dominant of these being a long green brocade snood into which the hair was at times inserted. At its terminus was set a large square of velvet heavily encrusted with seed pearls and designs outlined in gold wire. This was known as a pudya. On the head were assembled several differently cut the colored sections of cloth and the entire confection was held in place by the tokado, a band of brightly colored chintz that encircled the head and was in turn held in place by a band of velvet that crossed under the chin and was bound on top of the head.
It was customary when going out to wear as well a short sleeved jacket of satin lined with fur, usually rabbit but occasionally among the poor, of cat. This was the kapitana, and can be seen being worn, along with a kofya and other garments, by the woman on the left. The woman on the right has folded her kapitana in a quite idiosyncratic manner and is wearing it as a sunshade. The caption, undoubtedly added after the elapse of a good period of time, has incorrectly identified the kapitana as a headpiece.